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Yucatán Peninsula, Spanish Península de Yucatán, naquela northeastern forecast of central America, lied between ns Gulf the Mexico to ns west e north e the Caribbean Sea to the east. Encompassing some 76,300 quadrado miles (197,600 quadrado km), it includes ns Mexican claims of Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán and, in ns south, large parts that Belize and Guatemala. A peninsula has der mean breadth of around 200 mile (320 km) e a coastline of around 700 mile (1,100 km).


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The Yucatán Peninsula lies to the northeast of ns Tabasco Plain e extends northward, forming der divider between the Gulf...

The peninsula is practically wholly written of bed of coralline e porous limestone rocks, forming der low tableland that rises slowly toward a south. It is covered with a layer the thin, dry soil, developed through a slow weathering of the coral rocks. Where ns rocky surface ar is perforated, there ~ ~ natural sinkholes e caverns, roughly which the Maya had built their cities and ceremonial centres.

The climate of a northern Yucatán is hot e dry, and the absence of alto mountainous ridges come intercept the moisture-bearing clouds from the Atlantic results in der limited rainfall. Toward a south, moisture increases em ~ 18 inch (460 mm) to naquela maximum of 80 inch (2,000 mm) annually, and the scrub woodland gives rua to tall trees. Daily high temperatures range a partir de the mid-70s come 100 °F (about 24 to 38 °C), but ns heat is modification by oceano winds through ns greater component of ns year. A dry temporada lasts from December to May, and the hottest months estão May and June. Many of the peninsula receives adequate rainfall throughout a year.


The regions toward western Campeche and also those in Belize have adequate rainfall to support woodlands containing mahogany, sapodilla, vanilla, logwood, and other dyewoods. Logwood forests fringe all the lagoons and many parts of a seaboard. Animal life consists of deer, jaguar, wild boar, monkeys, snakes, and iguanas. Bird vida abounds, specifically turkeys, quails, e parrots.

The populace of a Yucatán varies significantly in both density e ethnic composition. Mérida in Yucatán state and its surrounding an ar is densely populated. The southeastern mexican state that Quintana Roo is a least populated component of ns peninsula. The majority of ns population in the Yucatán consists of Maya and mestizos (those of combined Indian e European ancestry). Ns three Mexican says in ns Yucatán an ar have der predominantly Maya population. In Belize about one-half of ns population is mestizo (defined there as of mixed Mayan e Spanish ancestry), e the remainder is Maya, creolian (English-speaking world of largely African and British ancestry), e others. In Guatemala around two-thirds of ns population is mestizo, and the bulk of ns remainder is Maya.

Corn (maize), sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, coffee, and henequen (for sisal hemp) ~ ~ cultivated throughout the peninsula. Oil has actually been uncovered in several parts of the Yucatán, e there is a gas ar at Xicalango e offshore oil fields near the somente of Campeche.Logging and chicle industries ser estar important in Belize. Historical sites—including Chichén Itzá and Uxmal (designated unesco World Heritage página da web in 1988 e 1996, respectively), as well as Tulum in Mexico—and ns development of der transportation rede have do tourism 1 of a major economic tasks of the peninsula. Over there is a highway network, e Cancún and other significant tourist centres estão linked to Mexico City and international destinations through air.


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History

The modern background of the Yucatán, grande called Mayapán by ns Mexicans, started with ns expedition of francis Hernández de Córdoba, der Spanish adventurer são de Cuba, quem discovered the leste coast of a Yucatán in February 1517 when on der slave-hunting expedition. In 1518 juan de Grijalva followed a same route. In 1519 naquela third expedition, under the conquistador Hernán Cortés, clashed with ns inhabitants the Cozumel Island. In 1525 a inland component of a peninsula was traversed through Cortés during an expedition to Honduras.

The conquest of ns peninsula ser estar undertaken in 1527 by francis de Montejo, who encountered a more vigorous opposition than did Cortés. By 1549 Montejo had succeeded in creating Spanish preeminence over barely half a peninsula, yet it era never extended farther. At that time, many of the Maya had abandoned your cities e were living in ns inland interior areas of ns peninsula.

During the colonial period the Yucatán remained a remote e unimportant component of a Viceroyalty of novo Spain (centred in Mexico). Ns Yucatán seceded em ~ Mexico in 1839 and kept its freedom until 1843. In 1847 an additional revolt followed, and the Maya were practically independent throughout most of the peninsula nearly until a beginning of ns administration that Porfirio Díaz (1877). In 1910 there era another revolt com some initial successes, after which numerous of the Maya withdrew to the nearly uninhabited state of Quintana Roo.

Until ns 20th century, the Yucatán foi ~ more closely connected com Europe and the flor States 보다 with ns rest the Mexico, e the world of ns Yucatán (mainly Maya) have generally eschewed being dubbed “Mexicans.” Not until 1957 was a narrow-gauge railway heat to mainland Mexico widened, thus facilitating ns movement of heavy freight. Mayan culture and traditions have prevailed into a 21st século in a Yucatán Peninsula.

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This article was most newly revised and updated by Maren Goldberg, Assistant Editor.